Patients with diabetes should be doing regular aerobic exercise. However, exercise and diabetes can present special complications. To reduce insulin resistance, it is important to get at least two days of exercise per day, regardless of your diabetes type. Type 2 diabetes is usually caused by poor lifestyle habits. A doctor may recommend different diets and exercises. Doctors may recommend Newcastle weight loss surgery for serious cases of obesity leading to type 2 diabetic complications. This helps the patient lose weight and allows them to exercise, making it easier.
To exercise safely, you must keep an eye on your blood sugar levels during and after activity. This will allow you to monitor your body’s reaction to exercise and help you avoid dangerous sugar swings.
These are the general blood sugar parameters that you should be aware of before starting to exercise. For measuring blood sugar levels, the units of measurement are milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL), or millimoles/liter (mmol/L).
Blood sugar levels below 100 mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) may make it unsafe to exercise. Have a small snack with 15-30 grams of carbs before you start your exercise. This could include fruit juice, crackers, glucose tablets, and fruit juice.
You’re good to go. 100-250 mg/dL (5.6-13.9 mmol/L). This is a safe range of blood sugar for pre-exercise.
250mg/dL (13.9mmol/L or higher) – This is a warning sign that your blood sugar may be too high for you to exercise comfortably. Ketones are compounds that your body produces when it breaks down fat for energy. You can test your urine for ketones. Ketones indicate that your body does not have enough insulin to control your blood sugar. Ketones can be a sign that your body isn’t producing enough insulin. This could lead to ketoacidosis which can cause serious complications such as diabetes. Instead of exercising immediately, you should take steps to lower blood sugar and wait for your ketone test to confirm that there are no ketones in the urine.
Aerobic Exercise Training
Adults with type 2 diabetes should aim for aerobic activity sessions that last no less than 10 minutes. The goal is to do 30 minutes or more every day. Activities should increase in intensity, frequency and/or length over time to 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per week. Adults who can run for at least 25 minutes at 6 miles per hour (9.7 km/h), can benefit from vigorous-intensity exercise of shorter duration (75 minutes/week).
Adults with diabetes should do resistance exercise 2-3 times per week on non-consecutive days. Resistance training with weight machines and heavier weights may be more beneficial for glycemic control. However, any resistance training intensity is recommended for strength, balance and the ability to participate in daily activities throughout life.
Flexibility and Balance, as well as Other Training
Flexibility exercises are performed on at least two days per week to maintain joint range of motion. People with diabetes may find flexibility training beneficial, but it shouldn’t be used as a substitute for other recommended exercises (such aerobic and resistance training). Flexibility training has no effect on glucose control, body composition or insulin action.
Exercise: Look out for signs of low blood sugar
Exercise can be dangerous if your blood sugar is low. If you plan to do a prolonged workout, you should check your blood sugar once every 30 minutes. This is especially important if your activity changes or you increase the duration or intensity of your workout. You can check your blood sugar every half an hour to see if it is stable, rising or falling and whether you are able to continue exercising.
Stop exercising if:
Your blood sugar level is 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L)
Feeling weak, confused or shaky
Check your blood sugar levels after exercise. Repeat this process several times over the next hour. Exercise depletes your liver and muscles sugar reserves. While your body absorbs sugar from blood, it also rebuilds these reserves.
Diabetes ketoacidosis is a condition where blood sugar levels are too high. If you’re dehydrated, this can occur. Do not exercise if your blood sugar levels are high (e.g., more than 300 mg/dL). You should exercise with caution if your blood sugar levels are high (e.g., 300 mg/dL) or you don’t have any ketones.